“Serb-Croat Political Relations in the 20.century – Identity Protection”
August 22-27, 2014.
Center for History, Democracy and Reconciliation
Association for History, Cooperation and Reconciliation
Golubic Obrovacki, Croatia, August 22-27, 2014
Download pdf documents:
Nacionalne manjine u hrvatskoj Baranji između čekića i nakovnja – slučaj baranjskih Nijemaca
Politički transnacionalizam1 hrvatskih iseljenika u Čileu: povezivanje hrvatskih i srpskih iseljenika i iseljenički pokret Jugoslavenska narodna obrana (JNO)
Seoba i identitet- lički kolonisti u banatu 1920- 1941
Očuvanje nacionalnog identiteta srpske nacionalne zajednice u Republici Hrvatskoj kroz razvoj Evropskog društva znanja
Neophodnost primene holističkog marketing koncepta pri upravljanju organizacijama (preduzećima) u povratničkim sredinama
Hrvatska historiografija i manjinske teme od 1990. do danas – Selektivna bibliografija
An example of ideological propaganda through press: The “Anti-Semitic discourse of the newspaper Makedonia in Salonika (1930-1944)”
Antifascist struggle and the Jews: The case of Yugoslavia and Greece
Diskurs o ustavnoj formulaciji jezika u Hrvatskoj 1989. godine u hrvatskom i srpskom novinstvu
Zastupljenost dijaspore i pripadnika srpskog i hrvatskog naroda koji žive van granica matičnih država u parlamentu i u političkom životu Srbije i Hrvatske
Conclusions of the Holocaust session
The idea of the Holocaust working session is to familiarize participants with new educational materials, methods and strategies of teaching and research about the Holocaust as well as sensitize them to the danger of prejudice, discrimination, racism and anti-Semitism. In fact the Holocaust provides one of the most effective subjects for examining basic moral issues. A structured inquiry into this history yields critical lessons for an investigation into human behavior. It also addresses one of the central mandates of education in Europe, which is to examine what it means to be a responsible citizen. *
The participants’ intention is to create a common ground for Croat and Serbian scholars and educators to share the ideas and strategies with other colleagues from abroad.
Moreover teaching of the Holocaust is connected with the defense of minorities’ rights as the Holocaust -among other things- was also the result of how European national states and societies transformed Jewish population of their countries into a minority which had no rights and had to be excluded.
This years’ session had scholars from Croatia, Germany, Greece and Serbia and focused on two main topics:
There were two presentations on the ideological manipulation throughlocal press in Croatia and in Greece (Thessaloniki) during the 30s and the Second World War. One about a newspaper in Croatia and its anti-Semitic discourse during Nazi Occupation and the other about a newspaper in Thessaloniki, its anti-Semitic discourse and the changes of it through the 20s, the 30s and during the Second World War. Both emphasized on the danger of wide spreading prejudice, discrimination, racism and anti-Semitism through press during critical historical periods.
The other two presentations were about resistance and collaboration in Serbia and in Croatia during the Second World War, the role of Ustasha, the participation of the Jews in the Resistance movements and their connection to the communist movement before war.
Through the presentations and the discussion afterwards we came up with some general ideas and conclusions about ways of teaching history and the Holocaust as to promote tolerance, peace and fruitful coexistence between Serbs and Croats, between different people in societies:
It’s crucial to teach about social, political, economic, ideological procedures in history through case studies, paradigms and primary sources (as the discourse of newspapers)
In order to effectively fight ideological manipulation or propaganda** through press and mass media, we need to educate people to identify and recognize this manipulation when they see it; to enhance their ability to read behind the lines, to be sensitive when they are trying to manipulate them.
Propaganda in totalitarian regimes is easy to recognize for its blatant and crude methods. In democratic societies, propaganda exists, as most of the above attests to. But, it is harder to see.
We need to be aware of the fact that there are elementson which ideological manipulation is based as to widespreadprejudices, hatred and fearin a society. These are:
The tendency of the individual to adopt the opinions and follow the behaviors of the majority. As a result often press and mass mediause selective stories that come over as wide-covering and objective.
The tendency of a person to see patterns where actually none exist. For this reason media often use narrow sources of “experts” to provide insights in to the situation.
The tendency of people to reject new evidence that contradicts an established paradigm. In many cases, war itself is not inevitable, and propaganda is often employed to go closer to war.***
When we teach about massive crimes in history and especially when we teach about the Holocaust it is necessary to explainwhatthe reasons were behind the facts;there aremany historical, social, religious, political, and economic factors, structural causes that cumulatively can result to massive crimes and that led to the Holocaust (Fascism, Nazism, its anti-Semitism and its anticommunism, racism, economic crisis (poverty), aryanization of Jewish properties, nationalism, boundaries revision, ethnic cleansing). As to prevent similar situations in the future, we have to gain awareness of the complexity of the subject and a perspective on how a convergence of factors can contribute to the disintegration of democratic values.
It is important to be aware of the fact that when there is war, when there is economic crisisor apoliticalone, when society and people are under pressure, then demonization of the “other”, emerging of previous stereotypes, stigmatization, scapegoating,dehumanization – often of minorities –is a common practice that may end in the use and the intensification of violence.And once war starts, civilian casualties are almost a guaranteed certainty.
In every society it is important to find through the key areas of education, culture, institutions,common ground between different people, similarities and the fruitful contribution of every“other” to the society. We have always to think who loses and who benefits from divisions among oppressed people. Those in power profit in many different ways while those who lose are ordinary people in both sides. In the end we all lose when generations are denied the right to develop and contribute their gifts to the rest of the human community.****
* http://www.ushmm.org/educators/teaching-about-the-holocaust/why-teach-about-the-holocaust (visit 10/0/2014)
** As far as the war period is concerned the term is used in its main negative connotation by association with its most manipulative examples (e.g. Nazi propaganda used to justify the Holocaust). See Herf, Jeffrey (2006). The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Ideology and Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust, Harvard University Press.
For the examination of other periods we can use other terms (disinformation, evangelismetc), in order to be more accurate.
*** About propaganda tactics see http://www.globalissues.org/article/157/war-propaganda-and-the-media#ElementsofPropaganda
Istoričari, ekonomisti i pravnici koji su svoje radove izložili u okviru grupe naučnika koji su se bavili pitanjem očuvanja nacionalnog identiteta na kraju skupa su došli do sledećih zaključaka:
Identitet je višeznačan i pored očuvanja nacionalnog identiteta može se govoriti i o očuvanju identiteta svakog građanina, kao i drugih kolektivnih identiteta.
Nacionalni identiteti manjinskih zajednica moraju da uživaju punu zaštitu države.
Zaštita identita ne treba da se ograničava samo na zaštitu tradicije, kulture, jezika i pisma već ona treba da obuhvata i ekonomski aspekt održivosti srpske manjine u Hrvatskoj i hrvatske manjine u Srbiji.
Veliki je značaj manjinskih samouprava u očuvanju identiteta i one moraju imati stabilne pravne i ekonomske uslove za nesmetan rad.
„Poduzetnici“ komemoracija moraju voditi računa o nužnosti integrativnih faktora za sve građane države u kojoj djeluju.
Manjinske samouprave trebale bi pored obaveze da same potiču potpunu zaštitu identiteta da promovišu i poštovanje drugih identiteta i ne produciraju sukobe na toj osnovi.
Identitet, pa time ni nacionalni identitet ne sme da bude predmet političkih manipulacija.
Negovanje nacionalnih identiteta, odnosno identiteta nacionalnih manjina na bilo koji način ne ugrožava identitete većinskog naroda i obrnuto.
Očuvanje identiteta doprinosi multikulturalnosti i bogatstvu društva.
Komemorisanje istorijskih datuma jednog od ova dva naroda ne smeju da ugrožavaju identitet drugog naroda.